Friday, May 29, 2009

Students at Wannamaker Nature Preserve!

Wannamaker Nature Preserve is owned by the Columbia Audubon Society chapter with educational programming provided by the Audubon Center at Francis Beidler Forest. Although the trails have existed for years, the lack of a shelter, bus access and parking, and restrooms have prevented local Calhoun County schools from using the outdoor laboratory. That all changed this week with 3rd graders visiting on Tuesday and 4th graders visiting on Wednesday!

Even though the restroom will not be installed until next month, the proximity to the schools (7-minute bus ride) and the brief time at the preserve allowed schools to work around the issue. As noted in earlier blogs (1, 2, 3), the driveway, parking and shelter issues had already been resolved.

These first visits were intended to familiarize students and teachers with the site. Chris Russell runs the elementary school science lab and was the liason between Audubon and the Calhoun County School District. The 3rd graders walked along the trails and reported what they saw to the adult recorders. The lists included: Southern Toad, Ebony Jewelwing Damselfly, fungus, spiders (multiple species!), poison ivy, pine trees, sweetgums, deer tracks, blackberries, ants and ant piles, lizards, Blue Jays, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, flowering Spanish Moss, funnel web spiders, dragonflies, mosquitoes, ticks (yuck!), ferns, grasses, acorns, pecans, Carolina Wren nest in shelter, etc. Back in the classroom, students will create food chains and food webs based on the organisms they encountered during their walk!
The 4th graders saw much of the same life when they visited the next day. However, they took their visit up a notch by creating an event map of their experience. Working in pairs, students sketched their path through the preserve, made notes of their observations, and sketched items of interest. Therefore, each map had similarities (picnic shelter, trail, driveway), but each map was unique based on the creators' interests (not every student added ticks or spiders). Things were going quite well for the first group as we were about to complete the full blue trail circuit. Five minutes from the shelter, the sky opened and rained for exactly five minutes. We were soaked, all the maps disintegrated, but there was nothing but laughter. The second group fared better when it came to the weather.
We look forward to seeing even more students in the fall!

Images by Mark Musselman

Thursday, May 28, 2009

Red-shouldered Hawk

Fans of Monty Python will know that the Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) in the image is neither "resting," "stunned," nor "pining for the fjords." This partly because it is a Red-shouldered Hawk and not a Norwegian Blue Parrot, but mostly because it was hit by an automobile and killed. Owls and hawks suffer such fatal encounters with motor vehicles because they hunt the roadside clearings for small mammals. While on their glide path to the roadside from their powerline or treeline perch, the raptors are focused on their prey and oblivious to the high-speed danger approaching on a collision course.

As the hawk specimen was in such fine shape and was brought to the Audubon Center at Francis Beidler Forest immediately after being struck and killed, we decided to preserve it for a display in the nature center.

Paul Rhymer of Maryland is a taxidermist and model-maker for the Smithsonian Institution and has been sent from the Smithsonian to Mongolia to assist them with their natural history displays. He is also a nationally award-winning sculptor. As a sculptor exhibiting at Summerville’s "Sculpture in the South" each year, he and his wife have visited Beidler Forest often. When he was asked for a recommendation for a taxidermist in our area to mount the hawk, he generously offered to do it for us as a gift – as long as we weren’t in a hurry! We very gratefully accepted his offer, and he brought the hawk to us during his recent participation at Sculpture in the South 2009. Mr. Rhymer has a permanent sculpture "Free Ride" in Summerville’s Shepherd Park.

Images by Mark Musselman

Wednesday, May 27, 2009

Audubon South Carolina Birdathon

On May 1-2, the Board and staff of Audubon South Carolina went forth and did battle to claim the coveted Birdathon Idol award. From the back yards of Greenville, to the coastal islands north of Charleston, to the backwaters inland of Beaufort, to the swamps of Beidler Forest, to the green spaces of Summerville, to the Savannah River near Aiken, to the barrier islands near Hilton Head, to the woods around Columbia and St. Matthews, we braved poison ivy, poison snakes, poison bugs, splinters on our feet from our backyard decks, potential from sunburn while yachting around Hilton Head, the possibility of ghost attack while sleeping at Twickenham Plantation and of course the ever present danger of eyestrain from using binoculars and reading a guidebook simultaneously! Needless to say… it was brutal.

Our grand total statewide bird count was a whopping 181 species! And of that, only four were cheap birds (Chicken, Muscovy Duck, Peacock, and Guinea Hen). No road killed birds, no pet store parakeets, no fried birds, were included in the count! All in all, an unusually upright and honest Birdathon, unlike years past when the mercenary nature of the fundraising aspects of the event, have caused some to “pad their lists” a little with the lame excuse that “a new bird species is a new bird species, regardless of where it lives, how it died, or how it was cooked!”

Between pledges and outright donations, we are currently at $26,000 of our statewide goal of $30,000. Remember, we will receive a dollar for dollar match for the first 30K! The motto of the annual Birdathon has and always will be… “It is never, no never, never ever, never, Never, NEVER too late to donate to the Birdathon!!!” So if you have contributed already, then let us say thank you, thank you, thank you for your generosity and support. We could not do all that we do without your help! For those who have yet to donate, please remember the above mentioned motto! We could use your help to hit our goal and maximize the matching gift.

As an added incentive, Mark Musselman had one of his Prothonotary Warbler images framed by Rick Sutton of Frame & Design Gallery of Summerville. Those that pledge at least $40 with him had a chance to win the framed image. All names were written on identical yellow Post-it notes, which were folded over to seal and then placed in a cloth bag. Lynnette Thompson of the ASC staff drew the winning name - Mr. R. Girouard.

There is additional coverage and images in today's Summerville Journal Scene.

Image by Mark Musselman

Monday, May 25, 2009

Mt. Pleasant Academy

A technical issue prevented this blog from posting on Friday, so we'll add it in with today's news.

On Friday, 3rd graders from Mt. Pleasant Academy visited the old-growth swamp at the Audubon Center at Francis Beidler Forest. The weather was perfect and the water from recent rains was still evident throughout the swamp. Not only did one group see all five species of snakes in the swamp, a rarity for any given group, but they doubled up on all five species! That's a feat never accomplished along the boardwalk by any visiting group!

A Banded Water Snake (Nerodia fasciata fasciata) perched on a branch near the boardwalk clearly showed the "sometimes difficult to see" red bands. A frog, possibly a River Frog, was nearby. Although the frog was likely too big for this particular snake, several snake species readily dine on frogs.

On the way to the lake, we spied a lone Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) egg in the cavity of a WaterLocust (Gleditsia aquatica) right against the boardwalk. The female will lay one egg per day (4 or 5 eggs) and then she will begin incubating the eggs. We haven't been back out on the boardwalk since Friday, so we cannot report on the nest's status. Eggs in this nest are easily within reach of a raccoon using the boardwalk to stay dry.
Just beyond the bird's nest, a pair of dragonflies were mating. The male clasps the female's head, which sometimes causes serious injuries to her eyes and head, while the two are mating. Later, the female will dip fertilized eggs one at a time into the water. Dragonflies spend the majority of their lives as predators under the water before emerging and becoming adults on the wing.

The last snake we saw was our second Red-bellied Water Snake (Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster). It was perched on a young Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum) tree at the edge of the swamp. The snake's red belly and the cypress' green needles stood out against the dark look of the water.

Finally, just before the last rain shelter, we saw a worm wiggling in the water. A closer look revealed the camouflaged shape of a fish. A Redfin Pickerel (Esox americanus americanus) had more than a mouthful as it tried to consume the worm.

Images by Mark Musselman

Memorial Day

Though the bald cypress in the old-growth swamp at Audubon's Francis Beidler Forest have stood in place for over 1000 years, our country has existed for less than a quarter of that time. The individual men and women that helped form this country, defended this country, and continued to work toward the betterment of this country lived at best a mere tenth the life of these cypress.

Today, we remember those Americans who lived lives shorter still due to their sacrifice in service to our country. Just as the ancient trees of Beidler Forest still stand due to the work and sacrifices of many men and women and not merely by chance, we stand today and enjoy the freedoms of this country due to the sacrifices of many men and women.

Let us not's not by chance that we have that option.

Thursday, May 21, 2009

Mac Stone's Beidler Forest Video

Mac Stone, the soon-to-depart seasonal naturalist at the Audubon Center at Francis Beidler Forest, created a short video using still images he took during his time in the old-growth swamp. We posted this link in a previous blog entry, but buried it in text discussing heavy rains and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) nesting territories. Therefore, as it is a excellent piece of work, we give Mac's video center stage!

Video by Mac Stone

Tuesday, May 19, 2009

As the Swamp Turns

It has been a VERY busy few days at the Audubon Center at Francis Beidler Forest! Fine weather on Saturday drew a constant stream of visitors to the old-growth swamp. Those exiting the boardwalk reported seeing does and fawns (being chased by hunting dogs); Barred Owls (Strix varia) feeding crayfish to their young; various snakes, including a Greenish Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta x quadrivittata) at the lake observation tower with a noticeable bludge in its middle; Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) flying with insects in their bills or singing; Yellow-crowned Night Herons (Nyctanassa violacea) diminishing the crayfish populations; and 1000-year-old trees doing what they've been doing for...well, 1000 years!

Saturday evening, the air temperature dropped along with the humidity and set off a performance by the swamp's finest. Prothonotary Warblers sang and flashed their fine, yellow feathers during bold displays in front of the visiting National Audubon Society Board of Directors. Barred Owls called to each other in an ever-rising cacophony. Back under the tents, guests dined on grilled corn, steammed vegetables, fried chicken and barbecued ribs as frogs of every species began to sing dimming the light.

Sunday's cold front and associated rain (2.70") arrived late in the day, but the effects were felt into Monday morning. A science education video crew with students from the local Rollings Middle School of the Arts arrived at 7:30 am for shooting in the largest-remaining, old-growth, cypress-tupelo swamp. Although the overcast skies provided outstanding lighting, the damp, cool air made it difficult for the talent to say their lines without chattering! Even dragonflies and damselflies found it too cold to get airborne, which made for some spectacular up-close, student-insect filming. We also saw Prothonotary Warblers feeding chicks; Barred Owls hunting crayfish; crayfish crawling scared and challenging us with their big, nasty claws; Eastern Cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus); Yellow-crowned Night Herons; Eastern Mud Turtles (Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum); and a fawn parked on high ground near the boardwalk. The crew and talent filmed scenes on the boardwalk, in the swamp, and finally in a canoe on Mallard Lake. A long day, but how can one complain when "working" some place like no other place on Earth!

As Jeff came off the boardwalk yesterday, he mentioned finding a Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) chick in a Prothonotary Warbler nest near #138. Female Brown-headed Cowbirds lay their eggs in other bird species' nests and may even remove some of the other birds' eggs. When the cowbird chick hatches, often before the host species eggs hatch, it will have first crack at the feeding parents' attention. Its larger size will help the cowbird chick maintain feeding dominance. Additionally, the cowbird chick will eject eggs from the nest by leveraging an egg onto its back and hoisting it over the nest's edge. As this Prothonotary Warbler nest is deep in a cypress knee, the cowbird chick may not have been able to eject the eggs. All four hatched, though one Prothonotary Chick was significantly smaller than its siblings.

Jeff was able to band the Prothonotary Warbler chicks before they fledged. Today, Brad, a former seasonal naturalist (season 1 & 2), was able to get images of one Prothonotary Warbler chick leaving the nest. Its short flight ended in the water, but Prothonotary Warbler chicks have the ability to "paddle" through the water with their wings. The chick made it to a tree and up to a low branch. Shortly after the Prothonotary Warbler chick exited the nest, the cowbird chick followed. After sitting atop the cypress knee containing the nest, the cowbird chick made a short flight that also ended in a water landing. Cowbird chicks, however, do not possess an innate ability to move through the water. The cowbird chick floundered and was unable to move out of the cold water (air temperature was in the 50sF) even though is was at the base of a tupelo or cypress buttress. Hypothermia will likely end its short life and a passing cottonmouth or scavengers like turtles will clean up the remains. The parasitic female cowbird wasn't around to see the poor choice she made in selecting a host species that nests over water, so she wasn't able to learn from her mistake.

Death also came during the cold, wet night for the fawn along the boardwalk. The weekend-long harassment by the dogs may have kept the doe from caring for her fawn or the fawn may have been destined to die from disease or genetic defect. No matter, its dead body attracted insects (mainly flies and beetles) within minutes. Eggs laid on the carcass will devour everything but bone and hair within days. Other animals will gnaw on the bones for calcium and other minerals, so any evidence of the fawn's existence will be gone within weeks.

Life goes on and death plays its part in continuing life. Tomorrow, the 6th graders from the Charleston County School of the Arts will get their chance to redeem their raincheck and experience the life of the old-growth swamp! Let's hope for warmer, drier weather!

Images by Mark Musselman

Friday, May 15, 2009

Different View of Beidler Forest

Part of the beauty of the Audubon Center at Francis Beidler Forest is that nothing is exactly the same. The Four Holes Swamp watershed drains like a bathtub into the Edisto River just upstream from the Givhans Ferry State Park, so the water level in the swamp is never static. The trees are mainly static (sometimes they fall), but viewing them from a different angle makes one a first-time visitor again. There are no cages, so the wildlife comes and goes as it pleases and may not reward visitors with a glimpse. All of this has come to pass this week.

The heavy rains that fell yesterday and today have transformed the area around the boardwalk from a rapidly-drying mudflat to a rapidly-moving, 1.5-mile wide ribbon of water flushing through the swamp. If crayfish could, they would rejoice as the ever-shrinking pools of water made them easy targets for a variety of predators. The added water also extends our canoeing season! Fortunately, today's deluge did not occur until the Rogersville City, TN students had cleared the boardwalk and boarded their buses for home.

Although we've walked the 1.75-mile boardwalk through the old-growth swamp hundreds, if not thousands, of times, we always see something different. Today, Mac Stone, seasonal naturalist and photographer, released his impressions of the Francis Beidler Forest. His video is a collection of images that he has taken during his brief time here this spring.

This week's wildlife sightings included the Eastern Cottonmouth killing the Red-bellied Water Snake described in Wednesday's blog, Barred Owls feeding their young near #15 along the boardwalk, Raccoons leaving a trail of crayfish carnage, and Prothonotary Warblers feeding chicks and building nests. Entering the data collected during Project PROTHO into our Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software has begun to reveal the varying sizes of the nesting territories along the boardwalk. The territories out by Goodson Lake appear to be more desirable and are therefore smaller, while territories along the swamp's edge are considerably larger due to the lack of rivals.

Tomorrow, the National Audubon Society Board of Directors will have the opportunity to experience the wonders of Beidler Forest as they tour the boardwalk and enjoy a barbecue beneath the canopy!

Wednesday, May 13, 2009

Swamp Bites!

It's tough being a snake in the old-growth, cypress-tupelo swamp at the Audubon Center at Francis Beidler Forest! Previously, we've shown images of an Eastern Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus) killing and eating a Brown Water Snake (Nerodia taxispilota). Last week, a visitor showed us images of an Eastern Cottonmouth killing a long Greenish Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta x quadrivittata). Today, visitors came into the center with video of an Eastern Cottonmouth swimming with a dead Red-bellied Water Snake (Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster) in its jaws.

Maybe we should rephrase our first sentence to read, "It's tough being a non-cottonmouth snake in the old-growth..."

Images by Mark Musselman

Tuesday, May 12, 2009

Monday's Banding

Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) banding at the Audubon Center at Francis Beidler Forest had its ups and downs yesterday. Mostly, up and down off of the boardwalk! The nest with the four chicks that we were going to band was empty with no tracks in the mud around the tree. Suspects in the heist include the fine-climbing Greenish Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta x quadrivittata) or avian predators like crows.

We did band one female that was sitting on a nest with five eggs, found four chicks (two days old) in another nest, and saw a pair of adults putting nesting material in a cypress knee that has been used as a nest site in previous years. We recorded over 25 visual "recaptures," which will push the observation total over 300. We've entered over 100 observations into our Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software and the resulting map is already clearly showing nesting territories! (click map image to enlarge)

We also observed various Prothonotary Warblers ducking behind the interpretative signs at #7 and #8 along the boardwalk. At first, we thought the cavity-nesters had selected the nook behind the sign at the top of the 4"x4" post as a nesting site. Similar to the Carolina Wrens building a nest under the upper deck of the observation tower at Goodson Lake. However, the Prothonotary Warblers emerged from behind the signs with cocoons, ripped open the silky shelters, and ate the occupants!

While on the topic of eating, here are two shots of a Dark Fishing Spider (Dolomedes tenebrosus) eating a crayfish. The spider was observed during Saturday's Lowcountry Master Naturalist tour. The spider is eating a large crayfish with the second image showing the top two feet of a six-foot tall cypress knee! Yes, the spider is as big as it appears. Fortunately, they are no threat to humans. Fishing spiders do not build webs, but dive into the water for their prey.

Our busy day was capped with a BBQ in the outdoor classroom prior to the Holcim Cement Community Advisory Committee meeting. Berfore the updates from members of the community and Glenn Raynor of Holcim, Mark Musselman, education director at Beidler Forest, gave a presentation concerning Project PROTHO.

Images by Mark Musselman

Thursday, May 07, 2009

Raccoons, Crayfish, and Birds! Oh, my!

Project PROTHO continues at the Audubon Center at Francis Beidler Forest! While off the boardwalk, we were able to locate a territory AND an active nest just south of the powerline that crosses the swamp. We were able to take a picture of the Prothonotary Warbler chicks in the nest and band the male. The female returned several times with food, but she flew in too high as the nest is 10 feet up in a broken off Laurel Oak.

As we walked around in the drying swamp, the shallow water that remained roiled at our approach. The crayfish concentrated in the shrinking pools of water are on edge. Yellow-crowned Night Herons, River Otters, Barred Owls, and Raccoons are all looking for a crayfish meal. Shallow, shrinking water makes for easy hunting. The various crayfish body parts lying by the thousands across the mud and on top of logs are evidence that the Raccoons have been feasting. While the other predators eat the entire crayfish, the Raccoons simply eat the tail and reach into the water for another crayfish. It appears that one Raccoon actually dug one crayfish out of its below-ground burrow.

Images by Mark Musselman

Although the crayfish cannot fight back against the Raccoons, it appears they may have enlisted the help of the bird community. John Havlicek of Hardeeville, SC sent us these images of a Tufted Titmouse riding the back of a Raccoon. Note the Raccoon fur in the bird's bill. As has been noted on other animals, the bird is likely simply gathering nesting material by removing loose fur from the Raccoon.

Raccoon images by John Havlicek

Wednesday, May 06, 2009


Last week, Paul Zoeller of the Summerville Journal Scene visited the Audubon Center at the Francis Beidler Forest. He published his photos and reflections on his experience on the paper's webpage. The only correction we would offer is that there is no river associated with the swamp. The open, sunlit area was Mallard Lake, a deep hole in the swamp that always holds water and therefore denies trees the opportunity to germinate.

As Paul has done such a fine job of capturing the complexity of the swamp and the need for multiple visits, we will simply "reblog" his work here!

Image of Mark Musselman taken by Paul Zoeller

Tuesday, May 05, 2009

She's Back!

Monday, at the Audubon Center at Francis Beidler Forest, was spent banding Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) in support of Project PROTHO. After a month of once-a-week banding, we have banded 29 new Prothonotary Warblers to go with the two birds banded at the end of last year's season. Below are the Twitter updates sent from the boardwalk that winds through the old-growth swamp with this blog's comments in italics. We were out from 9:30 am to 3:00 pm with volunteers coming and going during that period. Note that there was no lunch break this time as our banding manhoods were called into question after the last banding session.

TheSwampThingMale prothonotary at #104 plus 2 white-eyed vireos

The Prothonotary Warbler received the metal USGS bird lab band with the 9-digit identification number and three colored bands for identification at Beidler Forest without the need to recapture. The White-eyed Vireo pair (male and female) received only the metal USGS identification band after flying into the net as we banded the Prothonotary Warbler.

TheSwampThingTerritorial dispute at #135. Net going up.

This spot appears to be at the edge of two banded birds' territories, but there was also an unbanded male accompanying an unbanded female. The males were too busy harassing each other and did not respond to the recording of a male Prothonotary Warbler singing.

TheSwampThingSaw 1 of 2 prothos banded last yr! First time!

At the "T" in the boardwalk near #142, there has been plenty of action. This appears to be prime Prothonotary Warbler territory as it was the first place the birds appeared and remains densely populated. Territories appear to be much smaller as there are more birds competing for space in this area. With all the Prothonotary Warbler activity, both banded and unbanded, we have actively observed and netted in this area and volunteers/guests have submitted numerous observation data sheets for this area. Therefore, it is puzzling as to whey A002 has yet to be observed and identified.

A002 is special because she is one of two birds banded at the end of the last season before the Prothonotary Warblers migrated to Central America and northern South America! This is the first bird sighted in a subsequent year. A002 was captured on 7/28/08 on the fire lines that separate the dense, recently-logged (approx. 10 years) land from the upland forest that surrounds the nature center. There are no Prothonotary Warblers in that area at this time of the year. A002 weighs less than a dozen raisins, flew 1000-2000 miles south and then the same distance to return to Beidler Forest!

TheSwampThingProtho pair feeding chicks near #144.

Only the female was banded and she was banded on the first day of this banding season. The male was already accompanying her, but he eluded capture. Repeated attempts on subsequent banding days failed to capture this male. It appeared that he could see the mist net and made distinct maneuvers around the net. However, with a nest and chicks, we hoped he might get careless and fly into the net.

TheSwampThingMale protho finally in net! Wily! Nest pair banded.

The banded pair at the nest are female = A028 (pink over orange) and male = A057 (red over black). This is the first nest pair banded. The male, A057, did not make it easy. He was interest in the recording of a male Prothonotary Warbler singing, but he simply perched nearby and looked at the CD player on the handrail of the boardwalk. The mist net was set up directly under the nest, which is approximately 12 feet off the ground in the cavity of a thin snag. Once we put a museum specimen into the net, even though it was a female Prothonotary Warbler, the unbanded male made closer and closer passes. However, it remained apparent that the bird either saw the net or suspected the trap as it hovered and moved in slowly. As it turned out, too slowly to fall into the pockets of the net and he was able to disengage himself and fly off. This happened three times before an aggressive pass trapped him in the net's pocket.

If possible, we will band the chicks after their legs have reached adult size, but before they can leave the nest. Due to the nest's height above the ground and the likely weakness of the thin, rotted trunk in which it is located, it may not be possible to safely reach the nest.

TheSwampThingFemale protho taking nest material 30m up! What?

TheSwampThingCorrection: 10m or 30ft

Lesson learned: text slowly and proofread before hitting the "send" button. The nest in the bend of a tupelo gum tree was 30 feet or 10 meters above the ground (red dot in image). Even though the initial message reported an erroneous height, 30 feet (10m) is still much higher than we thought Prothonotary Warblers would nest.

We first observed the unbanded female seconds before she mated with a banded male, A024 (pink over yellow), near #148. After mating, the female began gathering nesting material and flew high into the canopy. We lost sight of her, but assumed that she flew some distance, because Prothonotary Warblers don't nest that high! However, we observed numerous trips to gather nesting material under the watchful eye of male A024 and return trips to the same cavity high in the tupelo tree. She remained in the cavity for extended periods of time, so one can assume that she was making something out of the materials she carried there. We'll be looking into Prothonotary Warbler research to see if there are other reports of high-nesting birds of this species. We can say with certainty that we will not be banding any chicks raised in that nest!

TheSwampThingBarred owls hooting. Unbanded male protho at #167

This unbanded male was a surprise as this marginal territory at the edge of the swamp appeared to be claimed and well-defended by another banded male. We decided to set up the mist net and see if we could entice the unbanded male bird into the net.

TheSwampThingProtho in net less than 10 sec after cd played!

Jeff, director of bird conservation for Audubon South Carolina, had not even cleared the net after turning on the CD player when the unbanded male Prothonotary Warbler flew into the mist net! Easily a new record for capture speed.

Another day of banding and more questions generated than answered! You can help answer some of these questions by taking a Project PROTHO observation sheet along with you as you tour the boardwalk. Any data that you can collect will help us determine the size of the birds' territories at various locations along the boardwalk, help us identify nest sites, and help us identify relationships between birds. Soon you will also be able to check on any banded bird by visiting that bird's webpage!

Images by Mark Musselman